OMAN The official language is Arabic.
PAKISTAN The national language is Urdu. However, only a comparatively small portion of the population speak it as their first language. The most common first language is Punjabi (spoken by approximately half of the population). Pakistani Punjabi is broadly the same as that spoken in India. However, it tends to overlap with more regional dialects such as Pahari and Mirpuri. Other languages include Sindhi and Pashto.
PANAMA The official language is Spanish.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA More than 700 indigenous languages are spoken on more than 600 islands. The most common languages are Pidgin English and Motu.
PARAGUAY The official languages are Spanish and Guarani.
PERU The official languages are Spanish and Quechue.
PHILIPPINES The official languages are Filipino and English. Of the main dialects the most common is Tagalog.
POLAND The official language is Polish.
PORTUGAL The official language is Portuguese.
QATAR The official language is Arabic.
ROMANIA The official language is Romanian.
RUSSIA The official language is Russian.
RWANDA The official languages are English, French and Kinyarwanda (the universally spoken indigenous language). Kiswahili may also be spoken by the professional classes.
SAUDI ARABIA The official language is Arabic.
SENEGAL The official language is French. The main indigenous languages are Jola, Mandinka, Pulaar and Wolof.
SIERRA LEONE Although the official language, English is spoken on a regular basis only by the educated elite. The most widely spoken languages are Mende,Temne and Crio ( a Creole variant spoken by freed Jamaican slave settlers).
SINGAPORE The official languages are Chinese (Mandarin dialect) , English, Malay and Tamil.
SOMALIA The official language is Somali. However, this name embraces a range of localised dialects which may be mutually unintelligible! Some Somalis may also be fluent in Arabic or Italian (Italy was the colonial power in Southern Somalia until independence in 1960).
SOUTH AFRICA There are 11 official languages: Afrikaans, English, Ndebele, Pedi, Sotho, Swazi, Tsonga, Tswana, Venda, Xhosa and Zulu.
SPAIN The official language is Spanish.
SRI LANKA The official language is Sinhala. A significant proportion of the population are native Tamilspeakers. The Tamil spoken in Sri Lanka is largely compatible with that spoken in SE India.
SUDAN The official language is Arabic. However, an Arabic interpreter of Middle Eastern origin would experience difficulty conversing with a local speaker. Indigenous languages (largely spoken in the South of the country) include Bari, Dinka, Nuer, Shilluk and Zande.
SURINAM The official language is Dutch.
SWAZILAND The official languages are English and Siswati.
SWEDEN The official language is Swedish.
SWITZERLAND The official languages are French, German and Italian.
SYRIA The official language is Arabic.